GRAINS, SEEDS, BEANS
Corn - also called Indian corn or maize, cereal plant of the grass family and its edible grain. The domesticated crop originated in the Americas and is one of the most widely distributed of the world’s food crops. Corn is used as livestock feed, as human food, as biofuel, and as raw material in industry.
Wheat is one of the oldest and most important of the cereal crops. Of the thousands of varieties known, the most important are common wheat, used to make bread; durum wheat, used in making pasta such as spaghetti and macaroni; and club wheat, a softer type, used for cake, crackers, cookies, pastries, and flours. Additionally, some wheat is used by industry for the production of starch, paste, malt, dextrose, gluten, alcohol, and other products.
Rice - edible starchy cereal grain and the plant by which it is produced. Roughly one-half of the world population, including virtually all of East and Southeast Asia, is wholly dependent upon rice as a staple food; 95 percent of the world’s rice crop is eaten by humans.
Oats - domesticated cereal grass grown primarily for its edible starchy grains. Oats are widely cultivated in the temperate regions of the world and are second only to rye in their ability to survive in poor soils. Although oats are used chiefly as livestock feed, some are processed for human consumption, especially as breakfast foods.
Rye, also called cereal rye or winter rye, cereal grass and its edible grain that is chiefly used to make rye bread and rye whiskey. It is high in carbohydrates and dietary fibre and provides small quantities of protein, potassium, and B vitamins. Rye is also used as livestock feed, as a pasture plant, and as a green manure crop that is plowed under to improve the soil. Its tough fibrous straw can be used for thatching, mattresses, hats, and paper.
Barley is the fourth largest grain crop globally, after wheat, rice, and corn. Barley is commonly used in breads, soups, stews, and health products, though it is primarily grown as animal fodder and as a source of malt for alcoholic beverages, especially beer. Barley has a nutlike flavour and is high in carbohydrates, with moderate quantities of protein, calcium, and phosphorus and small amounts of the B vitamins.
FOOD GRAIN FLOUR
Flour is the finely-ground, sifted meal of grains, nuts, seeds, legumes or certain vegetables - and each kind of flour has a different nutrition profile and cooking or baking qualities.